The variations in economic activity that an economy experiences over time are referred to as the economic cycle, often called the business cycle. Periods of growth, peak, contraction, and trough define it. These cycles show shifts in a number of economic metrics, including employment rates, consumer spending, investment, inflation, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

Phases of the Economic Cycle


Economic growth is portrayed by expanding GDP (gross domestic product), increasing work rates, high consumer confidence, and expanded business investment. During an expansion, businesses flourish, creation expands, and there’s generally an upward pattern in financial indicators.



The peak is the highest point of the economic cycle. It’s the time of maximum growth, elevated degrees of economic activity, and frequently over-the-top optimism. Inflationary pressures and market imbalances may occur as the economy reaches its peak. The stock exchange can be characterised to be in an irrational exhilaration.



Otherwise called recession, this stage includes a decrease in financial movement. It’s portrayed by falling gross domestic product, rising joblessness, diminished buyer spending, and a reduction in business investment. Contractions can prompt diminished trust in the economy and monetary difficulty for organisations and people. In this phase, stocks enter a bear market.



 The trough is the absolute bottom of the financial cycle. When conditions are at their worst and economic activity is at its lowest point. Nonetheless, it likewise marks the change directly from contraction toward recovery.



 In the wake of arriving at the trough, the economy starts to recuperate. This stage includes an expansion in monetary action, rising gross domestic product, diminishing joblessness rates, and the arrival of consumer and business confidence. Recovery drives back to the expansion stage, beginning a new cycle.


These cycles are a characteristic piece of market economies and are impacted by different factors like financial policy, monetary approach,  consumer confidence, technological advancement, and geopolitical events. Central banks frequently use policies and interventions to attempt to deal with these cycles and alleviate the unfavorable consequences of economic decline.